Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent


The antimicrobial properties of silver have been known to cultures all around the world for many centuries. The Phonecians stored water and other liquids in silver coated bottles to discourage contamination by microbes (Wikipedia: Silver). Silver dollars used to be put into milk bottles to keep milk fresh, and water tanks of ships and airplanes that are „silvered“ are able to render water potable for months ( In 1884 it became a common practice to administer drops of aqueous silver nitrate to newborn’s eyes to prevent the transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from infected mothers to children during childbirth (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).

In 1893, the antibacterial effectiveness of various metals were noted and this property was named the oligodynamic effect. It was later found that out of all the metals with antimicrobial properties, silver has the most effective antibacterial action and the least toxicity to animal cells (Guggenbichler et al., 1999). Silver became commonly used in medical treatments, such as those of wounded soldiers in World War I, to deter microbial growth (

Once antibiotics were discovered, the use of silver as a bactericidal agent decreased. However, with the discovery of antibiotics came the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains such as CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA, the flesh-eating bacteria. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, there has recently been a renewed interest in using silver as an antibacterial agent. The availability of new laboratory technologies such as radioactive isotopes and electron microscopy has greatly enabled us to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of silver in recent years (Fox and Modak, 1974; Feng et al., 2000).

Mechanism of action

Figure 2. Protein expression is downregulated when bacteria are exposed to Ag+. Shown are 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns obtained from suspensions of E. coli after reactions with 0 ppb and 900 ppb Ag+ solutions for 3 h. Some spots indicate decreased amounts of protein expression after reaction with a 900 ppb solution, compared to results after reaction with a 0 ppb solution. Four spots with a decrease to less than one-third of the original amount are marked with open circles. The circled spots were cut out from the gel and analyzed with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The probable identity of the proteins represented by the circled spots were determined by the NCBI and Swiss-Prot databases. Fructose-bisphosphate adolase was identified as another possible downregulated protein through this same process (not shown on this gel). The identity of the protein marked „Hypothetical protein“ could not be determined through protein databases (Yamanaka et al., 2005).

Figure 3. Treatment of cells with Ag+ results in DNA condensation, cell wall damage, and silver granule formation. (A) E. coli and (B) S. aureus cells with and without Ag+ treatment were observed with transmission electron microscopy (Feng et al., 2000).

Figure 4. Treatment with silver leads to dehydration of microbial cells. A) Staphylococcus aureus without silver treatment as found on a catheter. B) Staphylococcus aureus on a silver-containing material with microdispersed silver particles throughout the matrix. Both images were captured using scanning electron microscopy. Notice the shrunken appearance of the cells (Guggenbichler et al., 1999).

Figure 5. Structure of silver sulfadiazine.

Figure 6. Percent completion of reactions of various silver compounds with human serum. Human serum was incubated with 10 µmol of each silver salt. At the intervals designated, portions were removed and centrifuged, and the clear supernatants were analyzed to determine the amount of unreacted silver compound. The amount of compound used was taken on 100% (Fox and Modak, 1974).

Protein inactivation

Although the antimicrobial properties of silver have been known for centuries, we have only recently begun to understand the mechanisms by which silver inhibits bacterial growth. It is thought that silver atoms bind to thiol groups (-SH) in enzymes and subsequently cause the deactivation of enzymes. Silver forms stable S-Ag bonds with thiol-containing compounds in the cell membrane that are involved in transmembrane energy generation and ion transport (Klueh et al., 2000). It is also believed that silver can take part in catalytic oxidation reactions that result in the formation of disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R). Silver does this by catalyzing the reaction between oxygen molecules in the cell and hydrogen atoms of thiol groups: water is released as a product and two thiol groups become covalently bonded to one another through a disulfide bond (Davies and Etris, 1997). The silver-catalyzed formation of disulfide bonds could possibly change the shape of cellular enzymes and subsequently affect their function.

The silver-catalyzed formation of disulfide bonds can lead to changes in protein structure and the inactivation of key enzymes, such as those needed for cellular respiration (Davies and Etris, 1997). 30S ribosomal subunit protein, succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, maltose transporter (MalK), and fructose bisphosphate adolase were identified with high probability as proteins with decreased expression once cells are treated with a 900 ppb Ag+ solution (Yamanaka et al., 2005; Figure 2). It is hypothesized that silver ions bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit, deactivating the ribosome complex and preventing translation of proteins (Yamanaka et al., 2005). The proteins that were found to be downregulated upon treatment with Ag+ serve important functions to the cell: succinyl-coenzyme A synthetase, an enzyme involved in the TCA cycle, catalyzes the conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate while phosphorylating ADP to produce ATP (Slonczewski and Foster, 2009); fructose bisphosphate adolase is an enzyme involved in glycolysis that catalyzes the breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (Slonczewski and Foster, 2009); MalK is a cytoplasmic membrane-associated protein involved in the transport of maltose (Bavoil et al., 1980). In one way or another, all of these proteins play a role in energy and ATP production for the cell, so the decreased expression of any one of these proteins could lead to cell death (Yamanaka et al., 2005).

DNA association

Another one of the suggested mechanisms of the antimicrobial activity of silver was proposed by Klueh et al., (2000). It was proposed that Ag+ enters the cell and intercalates between the purine and pyrimidine base pairs disrupting the hydrogen bonding between the two anti-parallel strands and denaturing the DNA molecule (Klueh et al., 2000). Although this has yet to be proved, it has been shown that silver ions do associate with DNA once they enter the cell (Fox and Modak, 1974).

Entering the cell

Most of the proposed mechanisms involve silver entering the cell in order to cause damage. How would a metal like silver, or its ionized form Ag+, get across the hydrophobic cellular membrane to access the cytoplasm? From the perspective of a transmembrane protein, the silver ion simply appears to be a particle of certain size with a +1 charge. It is possible that silver ions get access to the interior of cells through transmembrane proteins that normally function to transport ions other than silver ions. Transmembrane proteins such as CopB-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae have been shown to be able to transport silver ions although its putative function is a copper transporter (Solioz and Odermatt, 1995). This proves that there are ways for silver to be transported across the cell membrane even though specific silver transporters may not exist.

Ionized silver

In order for silver to have any antimicrobial properties, it must be in its ionized form (Lok et al., 2007; Rai et al., 2009). Silver in its non-ionized form is inert (Guggenbichler et al., 1999), but contact with moisture leads to the release of silver ions (Radheshkumar and Munstedt, 2005). Thus, all forms of silver or silver containing compounds with observed antimicrobial properties are in one way or another sources of silver ions (Ag+); these silver ions may be incorporated into the substance and released slowly with time as with silver sulfadiazine, or the silver ions can come from ionizing the surface of a solid piece of silver as with silver nanoparticles.

Observed effects of silver exposure

Feng et al. (2000) conducted a study to observe the effects of silver ions on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. They treated cells with AgNO3, which is a source of Ag+ in aqueous environments, and looked at the structural and morphological effects of these silver ions on the cells. The cells were exposed to AgNO3 for 4-12 hours before being prepared for microscopy. The cell were then fixed and sliced with an ultramicrotome to produce ultrathin sections for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They observed that cells exposed to the Ag+ ions seemed to have activated a stress response that led to the condensation of DNA in the center of the cell. They also observed cell membrane detachment from the cell wall, cell wall damage, and electron dense granules outside and, in some instances, inside the cell (Figure 3). It was proposed that condensation of DNA occurred as a protective measure in order to protect the genetic information of the cell (Feng et al., 2000), however condensation of DNA could also prevent cell replication by preventing the DNA from being accessed by transcriptional enzymes such as DNA polymerase. The electron dense granules that formed inside and outside the cell were extracted and subjected to X-ray microanalysis to determine their composition. It was discovered that the granules were in part composed of silver and sulfur. This finding supports the idea that silver inactivates proteins by binding to sulfur-containing compounds (Klueh et al., 2000). It was also observed that when treated with Ag+, E. coli, a gram-negative bacterium, sustained more structural damages than the gram-positive S. aureus (Feng et al., 2000).

It has also been shown that treating cells with silver leads to cell shrinkage and dehydration (Figure 4) (Guggenbichler et al., 1999). The TEM images from Feng et al. (2000) (Figure 4) show that cells that sustained extensive damage eventually ended up with cell wall and cell membrane damage. Damage to the cell membrane could lead to the leaking of cytoplasm from the cell, which would result in dehydrated and shrunken cells as shown by the SEM images from Guggenbichler et al. (1999).

Attack on Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative

There are two explanations as to why gram-positive bacteria are less susceptible to Ag+ than gram-negative bacteria. The first involves the charge of peptidoglycan molecules in the bacterial cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria have more peptidoglycan than gram-negative bacteria because of their thicker cell walls, and because peptidoglycan is negatively charged and silver ions are positively charged, more silver may get trapped by peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria than in gram-negative bacteria (Kawahara et al., 2000). The decreased susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria can also simply be explained by the fact that the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria is thicker than that of gram-negative bacteria.

Silver sulfadiazine

Fox and Modak (1974) explored the mechanism of prevention of burn wound infections by silver sulfadiazine. At the time of publication, it had been known for quite a while that silver sulfadiazine (Figure 5) delivered in the form of a topical cream was effective at preventing infections in burn wounds, however it was not known if the antimicrobial activity was due entirely to the silver ions or if the sulfadiazine anion also contributed to the bactericidal effect. Tests from the study showed that sulfadiazine from silver sulfadiazine does not get transported into cells as much as silver. Silver isotopes (110Ag+) were also used to show that silver ions that enter cells complex with DNA. Additionally, the rate at which certain silver containing compounds release silver ions into solution was measured by adding silver compounds to human serum and measuring the amount of unreacted silver compound with increasing time (Figure 6). Notice in Figure 6 how silver sulfadiazine (Ag sulfadiazine) gradually releases the majority of its silver ions into solution over an extended period of time whereas silver nitrate immediately released all of its silver ions into solution (Fox and Modak, 1974). Therefore, silver sulfadiazine’s effectiveness as an antimicrobial agent for preventing burn wound infections is due to its tendency to dissociate in solution: silver sulfadiazine provides a steady supply of silver ions over a long period of time where as other silver salts such as silver nitrate release a large amount of silver ions all at once. If silver is employed as the primary antimicrobial agent in burn wound creams, the burn wound needs a steady supply of silver ions over a long period of time to kill off any microbes that could possibly infect the wound until it heals. Compounds that release silver ions all at once would need to be applied very frequently in order to kill off invading bacteria and prevent infection, and sometimes highly frequent application isn’t always practical or possible for individuals, so compounds that constantly release a bactericidal amount of silver ions, such as silver sulfadiazine, are the most effective at preventing burn wound infections.

It has also been shown that when silver treatment is combined with other antimicrobial methods such as UV light, copper ions, or oxidizers, a synergistic effect is observed, that is bacterial growth is inhibited more by treatment with silver and an additional antimicrobial method than would be expected if the inhibition effects of silver and that additional antimicrobial method were summed (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007). Because silver can inflict a fair amount of damage to the cell only once it gains access to the cytoplasm, it is believed that if some other antimicrobial method can give silver ions access to the cytoplasm sooner than if silver ions were working alone, a synergistic effect of the two methods would be observed (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).

Different forms effective at microbial inhibition

Silver salts

Silver can be administered to cells in a various number of ways. Silver salts such as silver nitrate (AgNO3) are effective at providing a large quantity of silver ions all at once. Because silver binds to thiol groups, it has been proposed that although one of the antimicrobial mechanisms of Ag+ is binding to sulfur-containing compounds, thiol-containing compounds such as proteins with cysteine residues can also serve to absorb the silver ions and neutralize their antibacterial activity by preventing the silver ions from attacking DNA (Liau et al., 1997). For this reason, prolonged antimicrobial activity from silver is best achieved by continuously releasing a moderate amount of silver ions.

Figure 7. Structure of zeolite. The porous structure is well suited to accommodate ions such as Ag+. (Wikipedia: zeolite)

Silver zeolite

Silver zeolite is also a commonly used form of antibacterial silver. Zeolite (Figure 7) is a porous matrix of sodium aluminosilicate that can bind a large amount of silver ions in its micropores (Monteiro et al., 2009). Silver ions are released from the zeolite matrix by exchange with other cations in solution and the amount released is proportional to the concentration of other cations in the solution (Breck, 1974 as cited in Kawahara et al., 2000). Kawahara et al., (2000) ran experiments to test the antimicrobial properties of silver zeolite in anaerobic conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed using silver zeolite, and it was found that depending on the species tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of silver zeolite ranged from 256 to 2048 µg/ml, which corresponded to a range of 4.8 to 38.4 µg/ml of Ag+. Because zeolite is already used in some toothpastes as a polishing material and the lack of silver toxicity to humans at concentrations such as those found in the MIC assays, the authors believed that silver zeolite would be a good compound to incorporate into dental materials, even those used in anaerobic conditions such as in periodontal pockets (Kawahara et al., 2000).

Silver nanoparticles

Figure 9. Different sizes of silver nanoparticles. 7-nm (a), 29-nm (b), and 89-nm (c) diameter nanoparticles were able to be synthesized using silver nitrate and gallic acid and by varying pH or UV light exposure. Images were captured using transmission electron microscopy (Martinez-Castanon et al., 2008).

Silver nanoparticles have been heavily studied as antimicrobial materials. Their simple synthesis (Figure 8) and highly effective observed antibacterial activity make them a very attractive form of silver administration.

Nanoparticle size

Martinez-Castanon et al. (2008) studied the effect of nanoparticle size on antibacterial effectiveness. To begin, nanoparticles with 7-nm, 29-nm, and 89-nm diameters were synthesized. The syntheses of the three different sized nanoparticles all used silver nitrate as a supply of silver ions and gallic acid as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The different sizes were produced by simply either altering the pH or irradiating the solutions with UV light. Transmission electron microscopy was used in the characterization of the nanoparticles to determine their average sizes (Figure 9).

Once the sizes of the nanoparticles were confirmed, MIC assays were performed on E. coli and S. aureus using the synthesized nanoparticles. The results of the MIC assays showed that smaller nanoparticles have more of an inhibitory effect than larger nanoparticles and that S. aureus is more resistant to silver nanoparticles than E. coli. The result that S. aureus is more resistant than E. coli to silver agrees with findings obtained by Kawahara et al. (2000).

Figure 8. Schematic illustration of the production of silver nanoparticles by reducing silver nitrate with citrate (Monteiro et al., 2009).

Gallic acid was used as a control in the MIC assays (Figure 10); the silver nanoparticles were added to cell cultures in the MIC assays in the same solution in which they were produced, so it needed to be tested whether or not the gallic acid produced as a byproduct of the nanoparticle synthesis would have an effect on cell growth. For the MIC assay using E. coli, the difference between the minimum inhibitory concentration of the 29-nm nanoparticles and that of the 89-nm nanoparticles was statistically insignificant (Figure 10).

The increased antimicrobial activity of the smaller nanoparticles could be due to the fact that smaller particles have an easier time getting through the cell membrane and cell wall and that relative to larger nanoparticles, smaller particles have a greater surface area to volume ratio (Martinez-Castanon et al., 2008). The greater surface area to volume ratio of smaller nanoparticles means that per unit mass of silver, the smaller nanoparticles have more silver atoms in contact with the solution than do larger nanoparticles. For smaller nanoparticles, this means that more of the silver atoms contained in the nanoparticle are able to take part in cell destruction processes. If only the outer layer of silver atoms of a silver nanoparticle are able to be ionized to silver ions, then a few large nanoparticles should produce less silver ions than a lot of small nanoparticles. Because silver ions are what impart antibacterial properties to a given silver-containing material, it makes sense that smaller silver nanoparticles have more antimicrobial effectiveness than larger silver nanoparticles.

Nanoparticle shape

Figure 10. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Ag nanoparticles. Smaller nanoparticles have greater antibacterial activity. The concentration difference between 29-nm and 89-nm nanoparticles for E. coli was not significant (Martinez-Castanon et al., 2008).

In addition to size, nanoparticle shape also plays a role in antibacterial activity. Pal et al. (2007) synthesized spherical, rod-shaped, and triangular silver nanoparticles and tested each of them for antimicrobial activity using E. coli. E. coli was streaked onto agar plates, and 1 µg, 12.5 µg, 50 µg, or 100 µg of each of the three types of synthesized silver nanoparticles as well as AgNO3 were added to the streaked plates. The number of colonies that formed for each of the conditions was counted and graphs relating the number of formed colonies and silver concentration for each of the four types of silver tested were constructed (Figure 11). It was determined that the order of most antibacterial to least antibacterial of the four silver-containing compounds was triangular, spherical, rod-shaped, and AgNO3. This order of antibacterial activity is explained by the different types of facets on the nanoparticles. The triangular nanoparticles had more active facets (electron dense facets) than did the spherical nanoparticles. The spherical nanoparticles, which weren’t perfectly spherical, had more active facets than the rod-shaped nanoparticles (Pal et al., 2007). Thus, shape does have an effect on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles and nanoparticles with more active facets have more antibacterial activity.

Figure 11. Antibacterial ability of silver nanoparticles is related to nanoparticle shape. A) Agar plates were streaked with 107 colony forming units/ml of E. coli and incubated with silver in different forms (either Ag+ (AgNO3), silver rod nanoparticles, spherical nanoparticles, or triangular nanoparticles). Each type of silver was administered in four quantities, 1 µg (a), 12.5 µg (b), 50 µg (c), and 100 µg (d). B) log(1 + # of colonies formed) was plotted against concentration of silver (µg) for each of the types of silver administered. R2 values indicate the fit of the plot to a first-order exponential decay curve (Pal et al., 2007).

Figure 12. Colloidal silver, commonly sold as a health supplement, can cause argyria, an irreversible condition where the skin discolors to a bluish-gray tone (


The only known side effect of high exposure to or ingestion of silver is argyria, a permanent condition where silver collects in the skin and other body tissues (Wikipedia: Argyria). Long-term ingestion of gram quantities silver, most times in the form of colloidal silver (Figure 12), is thought to be the cause of argyria (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007). Based on human case reports and animal experiments, 10 g of silver is thought to be the lifetime NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level) (World Health Organization 1996). Although argyria causes a blue-gray discoloration of the skin, it is not thought to be a health risk otherwise (ATSDR: Silver). Depending on the degree of seriousness, argyria could be socially debilitating for some individuals (Wikipedia: Argyria).

The EPA has established a secondary maximum contaminant level for silver of 0.1 mg/L (EPA: Secondary standards). These secondary maximum contaminant levels are unenforced and are merely provided as suggestions for the management of public water systems (EPA: Secondary standards). The reason for the non-enforcement of these secondary standards is that the contaminants for which these standards have been set all have been found to only cause aesthetic effects, which change the smell or taste of drinking water, cosmetic effects, which, as in the case of silver, are unwanted but not harmful to health, and technical effects, which may cause damage to water equipment (EPA: Secondary standards).

Current uses

Wound dressings

Novel wound dressings have been developed that use silver to help prevent wound infections. Silver nanoparticles are incorporated into the wound dressing, and the silver-enhanced wound dressings were found in vitro to consistently kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures entirely and kill Staphylococcus aureus cultures with >99.99% efficiency (Ong et al., 2008). In mice, the silver-enhanced wound dressings were also found to reduce mortality from Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infections from 90% to 14.3% (Ong et al., 2008).

Endotracheal tubes

Among hospital patients that require ventilator-assisted breating, ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common illness (Olson et al., 2002). Endotracheal tubes are used by patients needing ventilator-assisted breathing. Silver coatings on the inside of endotracheal tubes have been shown to delay the appearance of bacteria on the insides of these tubes, and subjects that used the silver-coated tubes also showed decreased lung colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Olson et al., 2002). Kollef et al. (2008) showed that silver-coated endotracheal tubes actually do reduce the incidence or increase the onset time of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients using a ventilator.

Surgical masks

Figure 13. Scanning electron micrograph showing silver nanoparticles on cotton fibers and table showing antimicrobial efficacy of silver-implemented cotton after repeated laundering cycles. 54 ppm silver nanoparticle solutions were applied to cotton fibers and a binder was then applied to the cotton to help retain silver nanoparticles on the material (El-Rafie et al., 2010).

Studies have examined the antibacterial properties of surgical masks coated with silver nanoparticles (Li et al., 2006). Nanoparticle coated masks were capable of a 100% reduction in viable E. coli and S. aureus cells after incubation. Additionally, the study reported no signs of skin irritation in any of the persons wearing the masks (Li et al., 2006).

Cotton fibers

Silver nanoparticles have been used to impart antimicrobial activity to cotton fibers. Cotton samples were immersed in silver nanoparticle solutions and then subjected to a curing process to allow the nanoparticles to adhere to the cotton (El-Rafie et al., 2010). A chemical binder was then applied to the fabric to help maintain nanoparticle-cotton binding. Cotton samples prepared in this manner were able to reduce S. aureus and E. coli cell counts by 97% and 91% respectively. Even after subjecting the fabric to 20 laundry cycles, the cotton samples were still able to reduce S. aureus and E. coli cell counts by 94% and 85% respectively (Figure 13). Cotton prepared in this manner could be used by individuals working in the medical field or those who often work with microbes to prevent the spread of infectious bacteria (El-Rafie et al., 2010).

Drinking water

Although chlorine has long been used as the primary drinking water disinfectant, it has been shown that the chlorination of water can lead to the formation of many hazardous compounds (Moudgal et al., 2000). Based on its low known toxicity to humans, silver has been suggested as a possible disinfectant of drinking water (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007). Water recycling systems on the Mir space station and NASA shuttles have used silver as an effective water disinfectant, and in the United States, faucet-mounted and pitcher home water purification units contain carbon filters that are supplemented with silver (Silvestry-Rodriguez et al., 2007).


AGC Flat Glass Europe has developed a glass with antimicrobial properties (AGC: Antibacterial glass). Silver ions incorporated into the glass are responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The company reports that 99.9% of bacteria that come in contact with the surface of the glass are killed. The glass was produced to help prevent the spread of pathogens in a hospital setting. It could also be used to maintain the integrity of sterile workspaces.

Food packaging

Various types of food packaging have been supplemented with silver-containing compounds to deter microbial growth and extend product shelf life. Some of these packaging types include bulk food storage containers, paperboard cartons, plastic or paper food wraps, and milk containers (Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002). Silver zeolite is the silver-containing compound used in food packaging (Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002). Although few silver-containing compounds are approved by the FDA for direct food contact, silver-incorporated food packaging is quite widespread in Japan (Appendini and Hotchkiss, 2002).


Recent studies have revealed that the antimicrobial properties of silver are due to its ionized form, Ag+, and its ability to cause damage to cells by interacting with thiol-containing proteins and DNA. These effects have been visualized (Feng et al., 2000) as well as quantified through many experiments. Silver nanoparticles are a form of silver of particular interest because of their easy production, high antimicrobial activity, and ability to be incorporated into a diverse range of products. With the ever increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and silver’s low toxicity to humans, the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent is an exciting topic with a great deal of relevance to many fields of study and industry.


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Colloidal Silver Generator Terminology and Definitions

Agglomeration  When particles in a colloidal suspension become too densely packed, some of them will begin to share electron rings with each other and in effect become a larger particle.  The visual effect is that the light is reflected differently from these larger particles and the color begins to shift toward yellow.  As more particles agglomerate, the yellow color becomes more pronounced.  The depth of the color change is an indicator of how much agglomeration has occurred.  With severe agglomeration, the color can become so deep yellow that it may look almost brown.  Colors other than yellow usually indicate the silver has combined with minerals.

Argyria.  A condition caused by ingesting too much silver which is manifested by the skin turning shades of blue or gray.  This condition is caused by ingesting too much silver salts or metallic silver concentrations.  The condition has never been associated with ingesting colloidal silver.

Colloidal silver.  Ionic/Colloidal Silver.    Actually the term is incorrect because the preponderance of silver in the water is in the form of ionic silver which are single atoms of silver which are missing one electron in the outer ring. Since „likes“ repel, the ions try to maintain the same distance from each other, this results in a homogenous dispersed solution.  The ions are actually dissolved in the water.  So the mixture is more properly called Ionic/Colloidal silver. 

Colloidal silver is clusters of silver atoms which are submicroscopic in size.  These clusters (colloids) of silver particles are suspended and evenly dispersed throughout the solution.  All the particles stay dispersed by virtue of Brownian motion and their small size.

Current.  Electron flow which is measured in amperes.  Electron flow is proportionate to voltage and inversely proportionate to resistance.

Constant current.  Current flow is kept at a constant value by increasing or decreasing voltage as required to maintain the desired (or preset value) current flow.   In the process of making colloidal silver, the voltage is reduced as the current tries to rise.  This is what keeps the silver particle size constant

Constant voltage.   Voltage is kept at a constant level (typically 27 volts) and current is then proportionate to the resistance in the circuit (silver/water solution).  In a colloidal generation, the current rises dramatically as the increased silver content of the water reduces the resistivity of the water.

Ion.  An atom which has lost or gained one or more of its electrons and is left with a positive or negative charge.

PPMParts per million of a solution.   i.e.: 10 PPM silver means 10 parts silver to 1 million parts water.  This is generally defined as mg/l.  Therefore 1 mg. silver in 1 liter of water is 1 PPM, etc.

Milliampere.  One thousandth of one ampere.  A measure of current flow.

Runaway.  When current flow rises linearly, exponentially or logarithmically.  The net effect is the current rises uncontrollably with time.

Tyndall effect.  The clearly visible path of a beam of light through a colloidal dispersion.  Each of the tiny particles in the dispersion reflects the light and scatters it.  A true solution does not show this effect because a solution consists of dissolved solids or other liquids combined.

Voltage.  A measure of electrical potential or electrical pressure.

Is more PPM really better?

PPM of colloidal silver needs to be understood in its entirety.  PPM means parts per million.  By definition 1 PPM is 1 milligram of silver deposited in 1 liter of water (1,000 ml) (1,000,000 mg).  If one were to ingest that 1 mg. piece of silver, it would not do much good.  If you were to divide that 1 mg. into 1,000,000 particles of silver, it would then have much more efficacy because it takes one particle of silver to disable 1 pathogen.  The silver is now 1,000,000 times better than 1 piece of silver even though by definition it is still only 1 PPM.  If one were to further divide the 1 mg piece of silver into 100,000,000  particles, it would be very beneficial indeed.  And so as the silver is more finely divided the PPM by definition remains the same.

So, what really counts is not how many PPM the silver is but how many particles the silver has been divided into,  That is why it isn’t necessary to have high PPM but it IS important to divide the silver as finely as possible.  To see how small the silver can be divided by our colloidal silver generators,  please look at the electron microscope photos.  It is not better to try to take high PPM colloidal silver but to take CS that is properly made.  If you think more silver is necessary, just take more of better made low PPM colloidal silver and you will be further ahead than if you took poorly made, high PPM colloidal silver. 

Another factor is the form silver is in.  90-95% of the silver made with the SG6 Auto is ionic and up to 98% of the SG7 Pro silver water is ionic.  Ionic silver is like sugar or salt dissolved into the water.  It is invisible and can only be sensed with a test meter such as the PWT we sell.  Ionic silver is conductive whereas colloidal silver is not.  Colloids are like small ball bearings floating around in the water and separated from each other by what is called Brownian Motion.  They carry no electrical charge.  The ions are silver atoms missing one electron in the outer shell and therefore are positive in charge.  The ionic portion is evenly dispersed like dissolved sugar or salt.

The generator determines the shutoff point by measuring the ionic water conductivity.  

If the colloidal silver is properly made it will be crystal clear.  This is because the particles are too small to reflect any light.  If it shows any color, the particles are too large.  The first color seen is yellow.  As the particle size increases other colors such as red, green, blue, brown or black may be seen.  Any color seen will indicate CS that is not very good.  

the Tyndall effect

Tyndall 1jpeg.jpg (38810 bytes)This picture was taken from above and shows the Tyndall effect in subdued light.  The laser was directed from right to left.  If one were to look at the vessel from in front at eye level, the Tyndall effect would be almost invisible.   It’s hard to see but the red beam is striking the silver particles in the water and what is seen is the light reflecting off those particles.  A strong Tyndall effect would indicate large particles.  This picture was taken of colloidal silver made to 20 PPM strength.  By using constant current and also stirring the CS during production, we are able to make a quality product.  This is what one should see when looking for Tyndall.

This laser will allow one to see the Tyndall effect very easily.  Just direct it through the colloidal dispersion and the beam will strike the particles and the light will be reflected off those particles.  Large particles will be seen as what is known as „sparklers“. 

This is a very inexpensive way to see your colloidal silver and judge its characteristics.

Laser 2.jpg (8109 bytes)
This sample was made by allowing constant current to flow during the production phase but we did NOT stir the CS.  Note the dark color and very strong Tyndall effect.   By not stirring the CS, the product is what would be called „agglomerated“.  The dark color is from silver atoms linking together to form larger particles which reflect yellow light.  However, the sample is crystal clear, showing that constant low current does make a clear product.  We allowed this sample to become very dark to illustrate the effect of agglomeration.  Compare this sample with the one at the left and you can see the obvious difference between properly made CS and an inferior product.  This sample is about 35-40 PPM.  If this product had been made using constant voltage, it most likely would have been impossible to see through  because it would have become „muddy“.


Please note:  In the above sample it is not necessary to look for the Tyndall effect in subdued light nor is it necessary to look down from above as in the picture at left in order to see the effect.  Agglomeration is obvious in improperly made CS


The history of colloidal silver

Colloidal silver has been around a long time.  It was used extensively in the 20th century until antibiotics became popular and relegated the use of silver in general to relative obscurity.  Colloidal silver wasn’t patentable; drugs were.  Profits were made in selling a patented product.  And some silver compounds had side effects if used improperly.  They could cause argyria, a cosmetic skin condition which could cause the skin to turn a blue/gray color. 

With the present day problems of bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics, colloidal silver is making a resurgence in popularity and use.   One of the reasons for the renewed interest is the fact that bacteria and viruses are not resistant to contact with silver.   Colloidal silver may be the magic bullet for mankind if antibiotics are no longer useful.   Colloidal silver was used to cure and/or treat many diseases before being replaced with antibiotics.

What was thought to be the end of infectious diseases was accomplished in the 1940’s. With the advent of penicillin, they were thought to be a problem of the past. How wrong they were!

It turned out that many bacteria were able to breed new and more powerful strains that were resistant to the „new“ antibiotics over time. By the 1990’s it was obvious that antibiotics were not going to take care of our infectious diseases. Some diseases which were becoming resistant were various strains of Pneumococcus, Tuberculosis and Gonorrhea to mention a few.

40,000 to 50,000 Americans will die from Streptococcus pneumoniae each year. And it’s not the drug resistant strain that’s doing the killing. It’s the regular strain. What’s going to happen when the drug resistant strain hits us? It will be worse than you can imagine. This disease can manifest in many ways. It can cause middle ear infection in children besides causing death in older persons. It’s responsible for half the visits to pediatricians each year. It is the major cause of middle ear infections in children. It’s also a major cause of death in older persons.

Staphylococcus aureus is another disease that is taking over the hospitals in America. There are many strains and some are drug resistant to almost all antibiotics. There is apparently only one antibiotic left that works, Vancomycin. When that one quits working, what will be left to the doctors arsenal? Not much. Another strong antibiotic is Methycillin.  Staph is now becoming resistant to it and is called MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureas).

One of the real problems has been that patients ask for and sometimes get antibiotics when they aren’t called for, such as for the common cold and other viral infections. This has led to the proliferation of these drug resistant strains of bacteria. Viruses don’t respond to antibiotics, so prescribing them is futile and should not be done, but it is used by too many doctors. Sometimes to pacify patients, sometimes to second guess the problem. It’s called the „shotgun“ approach. Throw whatever you’ve got at the problem and maybe you’ll hit the target. Sometimes it works; sometimes it doesn’t. We can blame the problem on too much use of antibiotics when they are not called for.

Drug resistant strains of these, and other bacteria are becoming more commonplace. It is only a matter of time until we have diseases we cannot control.

Colloidal silver is the drug that may be our best bet for surviving these terrible diseases. It is so powerful that bacteria, viruses and even some fungi can not live in contact with colloidal silver over 6 minutes.

Silver has been used for healing for centuries. The Greeks and Romans kept liquids in silver jars. During the plagues in Europe, many royal families escaped disease because they ate off silver plates and used silver utensils. It was used by the American pioneers to keep water and milk from spoiling or becoming contaminated. It is used by NASA to purify water in the space shuttle. Russia also uses it in their space shuttle. It is used by some airlines to purify water on flights. Thin silver foil is still used in India and China to wrap portions of food in. The food and silver wrap are eaten together. Silver is used in most of the burn centers in the U.S. and has been used to prevent blindness in newborn infants eyes for many years.

Silber, Kolloidales Silber

Silber hat die Fähigkeit Quecksilber zu neutralisieren und aus dem Körper auszuleiten“ hier

Silber ist der beste natürliche Stromleiter..“ hier

Silber kann die elektrischen und magnetischen Eigenschaften des Körpers beeinflussen..
kann ein gestörtes elektrisches Potential wieder normalisieren..“ hier

Simtex=hochfeines mit reinem Silber versehenes Textil.. reflektiert/dämpft HF-Strahlung 99,99%..
Schlafender durch Matratzenunterlage nahezu vollständig von Strahlung abgeschirmt..
verkürzte Einschlafphasen/längere erholsame Tiefschlafphasen..“

„Zusammenhang zwischen niedrigen Silberanteilen und Krankheiten..
Anteil im Körper 0.001%.. bei Absinken Fehlfunktion Immunsystem“ hier

Silbermangel wahrscheinlich einer der Hauptgründe, dass Krebs nicht nur existiert,
sondern sich in einem solchen Tempo in den Industrieländern vermehrt.“ Krebsforscher Dr. Gary Smith

Silber stimuliert knochenformende Zellen zum Wachstum neuer Knochen,
wo keine Heilung über einen längeren Zeitraum möglich war“ Robert O. Becker

„..fördert Knochenwachstum.. beschleunigt Heilung von verletzten Gewebe 50%..
Zellarten ähnlich Knochenmark von Kindern.. Zellen wuchsen sehr schnell.. produzierten
verschiedenartige Zellformen, die imstande waren, sich rasch zu vervielfältigen, um sich dann
zu spezialisierten Organ- oder Gewebezellen zu entwickeln.. sogar bei 50-jährigen Patienten..
überwindet das Hauptproblem der Regeneration von Säugetieren.“ Robert O. Becker

Verbrennungen von Lagerfeuer.. Anwendung von Silverlon.. nach 20min schmerzfrei..“

„Robert O. Becker: Vorteile der Silbertechnik US Patent 5814094:
+ einfaches Verfahren
+ Verwendung patienteneigener Zellen -> keine Immunreaktion
+ kein Zwang zu immununterdrückenden Medikamenten -> preisgünstig
+ keine Embryonen als Quelle von Stammzellen nötig
+ regenerative Heilung oberflächennaher Wunden
+ regenerative Heilung interner Organe wie Herz, Leber, Gehirn, Rückenmark“

Silbertechnik in 3 Phasen
+ 20-30min: chem. Kombination der hochaktiven freien Silberionen mit Bakterien/Pilzen deaktiviert
+ paar Tage: narbenbildende Fibroblastzellen werden zu Stammzellen -> ermöglichen Regeneration
+ Silberionen bilden Komplex mit lebenden Zellen im Verletzungsbereich -> produzieren Stammzellen, die
rasch in neue spezialisierte Zellen umgewandelt werden -> Regeneration der Originalstruktur statt Narbe“ hier

„Die wichtigsten Körperflüssigkeiten (Blut, Lymphe) sind Kolloide..
Erkenntnis führte zu raschen Fortschritten.. Siegeszug der Kolloidforschung“ hier

Kolloidale Mineralien werden um vieles leichter vom Körper assimiliert (ca. 98%),
als vergleichbare mineralische Nahrungsergänzungen“ hier

„Antibiotikaresistente Erreger lösen in den USA ganze Epedemien aus..
dritthäufigste Krankheits- und Todesursache wieder die Infektionskrankheit..“ hier

„Ein Antibiotikum eliminiert vielleicht ein Dutzend verschiedene Krankheitserreger,
aber kolloidales Silber tötet etwa 650″ Science Digest, März 1978

„Studien der med. Fakultät Uni Los Angeles haben die antibakterielle, antivirale
und pilzhemmende Wirkung von elektrokolloidalem Silber aufgezeigt“ hier

„elektrokolloidales Silber zerstört spezifische Enzyme,
die von Mikroorganismen für die Respiration benötigt werden“ hier

„trank 4 Tage jeden Tag 0.45 Liter 50ppm (wie 4.5 Liter 5ppm).. kein Joghurt, kein Acidophilus,
um den Verlust freundlicher Bakterien auszugleichen.. fühlte mich einfach besser..“ hier

„es ist an der Zeit, kolloidales Silber nicht nur als sicherste,
sondern auch als wirksamste Medizin der Welt anzuerkennen.“ Perceptions Magazine

„Silber kann nur als Kolloid in Wasser gelöst an jede Stelle des Körpers gelangen“ hier

Kolloide sind die kleinsten Teilchen, in die Materie zelegt werden kann,
ohne die individuellen Eigenschaften zu verlieren..
durch Zerkleinern Gesamtoberfläche enorm vergrößert und damit auch die Wirkung“ hier

positive Ladung geht mit der Zeit – vor allem durch Lichteinfluß – verloren..
immer lichtgeschützt aufbewahren.. am wirkungsvollsten bis 3 Monate nach Produktion“ hier

„Quecksilber neben Silber und Wasserstoff, geben Magnetismus ab.“ Schreiber

„die Wirkung des kolloidalen Silbers scheint vor allem auf die Frequenz des magnetischen
Feldes der Silberatomgruppen zurückzuführen sein, das sich um die Silberpartikel entwickelt“ hier

„die Kombination mit Silberkolloiden verstärkt erheblich die Wirkung
gegen Bakterien, Viren und Pilze“ hier

„positive Ladung auf Silberelektrode stoppt Zellteilung von Krebszellen.. Effekt der Silberionen..
anderes Elektrodenmaterial verstärkt Wachstum“ Robert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9

„Dr. Becker zeigte die Dedifferenzierung von Krebszellen.. Petrieschale mit Silberelektroden..
pos. Strom.. Silberionen.. wandelt Krebszelle in primitive Zelle, die in Organzelle redifferenziert..
Hautkrebs umgewandelt“ Robert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9

„mehrere Fälle, wo Krebs in kurzer Zeit ohne Chemo oder Bestrahlung verschwand..
recht große Mengen ionischen kolloidalen Silbershier

„Hund, 13 Jahre.. Hemangiom Sarkom.. operiert, unheilbar.. überall Metastasen..
kolloidales Silber (CS) als Trinkwasser.. Krebs verschwand in wenigen Tagen.. lebte mit 15″ hier

„Patient mit chron. Knocheninfektion und Krebs in der Wunde.. verweigerte Amputation..
nach 3 Monaten Silbertechnik Infektion unter Kontrolle, Krebszellen in
normale Zellen umgewandelt.. 8 Jahre nach der Behandlung noch ok..
kombinierte Wirkung der elektrischen Spannung und elektr. erzeugten Silberionen..
Ladungsaustausch sendet Signal zum Kern der Krebszelle -> aktiviert Gene
-> Zelle dedifferenziert und wartet auf Anweisung, was sie werden soll..“ Becker S.164ff cross currents

„Zellteilung bei Fibrosarkomzellen gestoppt durch Silberionen mit kleinen pos. Strömen..
innerhalb 1 Tages dedifferenzierten Zellen vollständig..
keine Zellteilung für 1 Monat..“
Becker S.224 Body Electric

„die Dedifferenzierung der Fibroblast-Zellen durch elektrisch erzeugte Silberionen
könnte die Regeneration in menschlichen Patienten ermöglichen“ Becker S.164ff cross currents

„Knochenbrüche heilten bei positiven Strömen rascher..
elektrisch erzeugte Silberionen regten Gewebewachstum an“ Becker

„mit der Silberelektrodentechnik große Mengen von Zellen dedifferenzieren..
aufbewahren, bis sie gebraucht werden.. wie Stammzellen von neugeborenen Kindern..
wird die Medizin revolutionierenRobert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9

„Hunza-Wasser.. hohe Konzentration von Silber.. submikroskopische Kolloidalform..
68dyn/cm -> nasser, leichter aufzunehmen.. Hunza vital mit 100″ Flanagan

„reines metallisches Silber in Gruppen von wenigen Atomen stark keimtötend.. völlig unschädlich für
den Menschen.. absolut ungiftig.. Schimmel, Viren, Bakterien, Streptokokken, Staphylokokken in
3-4 min in Lösung von 5ppm abgetötet.. keine bekannten Nebeneffekte“
Baklayan S.267

„bei Schnitt-, Schürfwunden, Warzen, offene Geschwüre, Hautkrebs, Ekzeme, Akne, Mückenstiche..
Lunge inhaliert, Nase gesprüht, Augen getropft.. Tiere und Pflanzen..
1/2 Teelöffel 2-3x tägl. in einem Schluck Wasser im Mund behalten“ Baklayan S.267f

„2 Blumen:
– eine in normalem Wasser.. verliert bald Blätter..
+ andere 24h ohne Wasser, welk.. in hochkonzentriertes Silberchlorid..
jeden Tag besser.. am 3. Tage Stamm wie frisch geschnitten.. verliert kein Blatt..“

„feinpulverisiertes Material Silber, Kupfer, Chrom, Kohle..
kleine Flüssigkeitstropfen in evakuiertem Glaskolben.. geschüttelt -> Teilchen schweben..
+ gebündelter Lichtstrahl -> Teilchen laufen auf Schraubenbahnen.. regelmäßige Formen, Eigendrehung..
+ Magnetfeld -> ähnliche Resulate..
Zentripetalkraft wirkte 130x stärker als die Schwerkraft“ Alexandersson S.221f

„Wer heilt, hat recht“

Symptome wie:
Allergien, Infektionen, Blutvergiftung, chronische Müdigkeit CFS, Nervenschwäche, Grippe, Keuchhusten, Legionärskrankheit, Katarrh, Nasenkatarrh, Nasenschleimhautentzündung (Rhinitis), Ohrinfektionen, Entzündungen des Gehörganges, Ohrentzündung, Augenentzündung (Ophthalmie), Augenlidentzündung (Blepharitis), Bindehautentzündung (Konjunktivitis), Hornhautentzündung (Keratitis), Hornhautgeschwür, Tränensackentzündung, Hautinfektionen, Hautentzündungen (Dermatitis), Hautausschlag, Rotfinnen (Rosacea), Bindegewebsentzündung, übelriechender Schweiß, Schuppen, Schuppenflechte, Ringelflechte, Fußpilz, Fußbrand, Gürtelrose (Herpes zoster), Akne, Verbrennungen, Sonnenbrand, Ekzeme, Furunkel, Herpes simplex, Aussatz (Lepra), Pest, Geschwüre, Eiterbeutel, Eiterfluss, Warzen, Hautpilz, Hautkrebs, Hauttuberkulose (Lupus), Tuberkulose, Wundheilung, offene Wunden, Blutparasiten, Krebs, Leukämie, Diphterie, Scharlach, Typhus, Paratyphus, Unterleibstyphus, Diabetes, Ruhr, Malaria, Meniere, Rheuma, Darmstörungen, Störung Darmflora, Darmerkrankungen, Dickdarmkatarrh, Durchfall (Diarrhöe), Bandwurm, Magenschleimhautentzündung (Gastritis), Prostatabeschwerden, Nebenhodenentzündung, Blasenentzündung, Hämorrhoiden, Afterjucken, Gonorrhöe (Tripper), Syphillis, Weißfluß (Leukorrhöe), Seborrhoea – Schmierfluss, Lungenentzündung, Mandelentzündung, Brustfellentzündung, Rippenfellentzündung, Blinddarmentzündung, Cryptosporidium Entzündung, Arthritis, Colitis, Cystitis, Hirnhautentzündung (Meningitis), Osteomyelitis, Kinderlähmung (Polio), Tetanus, Milzbrand, Zahnbelag, Zahnfleischschwund, Zahnfleischbluten, Zeckenbiß, Legionärskrankheit, Dekubitus, diabetischer Fuss, Adenovirus 5, Epstein Barr Virus, Diplococcus, E. coli, Pneumococci, Ringwürmer, Staphylococci, Staphylococcus, Hefepilze, Hefeentzündungen, Salmonellen, Candida albicans, Fluorid-Vergiftung, Quecksilbervergiftung, Schmerzen..

+ kolloidales Silber unverdünnt oder mit Wasser verdünnt trinken
+ morgens auf nüchternen Magen, 1 TL täglich
+ einige Sekunden unter der Zunge behalten
+ als ‚erste Hilfe‘-Spray bei Schnittwunden, Entzündungen, Verbrennungen, Insektenstichen
+ falls im Dickdarm wirken soll: schnell mit viel Wasser trinken
+ bei Zahnfleischentzündungen, Erkältungen, Mund/Rachen: unverdünnt gurgeln/spülen
– nie mit Vitamin C oder anderen Produkten mischen
– zu große Mengen Silber
– Antibiotika

+ Immunsystem gestärkt, Heilstimulus, gg. Fluorid-/Quecksilbervergiftung
+ Pflanzen blühen länger


Haaranalyse zeigt Mineralien, Spurenelemente, Metalle (Quecksilber, Silber..) z.B. hier, Dr’s Data USA lt. Vortrag Klinghardt zuwenig wird zuverlässig angezeigt, zuviel nicht, da Haare leicht verunreinigt sind. Drs Data bestes Gerät..
„zuviel Silber: Schüttelkrampf, Koma, Hautentzündung, Aneurysma, Leber/Nierenerkrankung, Lähmung, Magen-Darm-Katarrh..“ hier
„im Mittelalter schützte ein Silberlöffel im Mund vor der Pest.. amerikanische Pioniere verhinderten mit einem Silberdollar in der Milch das Sauerwerden“ Robert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9
„Die alten Griechen, Römer benutzten bereits silberne Behälter um Flüssigkeiten frisch zu halten“ hier
kolloidales Silber tötet Pathogene durch Unterdrückung der für die Pathogene lebenswichtigen Enzyme für Stoffwechsel, Wachstum, Regeneration und Überleben“ Brooks
Kolloidales Silber: in 6min gg. 650 Erreger, statt Antibiotika, einfach/billig herstellen Brooks
+ hochwirksames natürliches Breitband-Antibiotikum (Bakt./Viren/Pilze)
+ Verbrennungen, Haut-, Ohrinfektionen, Schuppen, Akne, Herpes, Hautkrebs, Krebs, Leukämie, Warzen, Arthritis, Blasenentzündung, TBC, Colitis, Cystitis, Diphterie, Diabetes, Ruhr, Ekzeme, Furunkel, Lepra, Grippe, Malaria, Meniere, Meningitis, Rheuma, Augen, Darmprobleme, Lungen-, Mandel-, Rippenfellentzündung, Prostata, Gürtelrose, TBC, Typhus, Geschwüre, Keuchhusten, Hefepilze..
+ gegen Keime: Desinfektion von Wasser, Schuß ins Trinkwasser der Haustiere, Geschirr, Gießwasser/Aquarium, Zahnbürsten, Toilette, Dusche, Duschvorhang, Haltbarmachen von Lebensmitteln
Silber – systemisches Desinfektionsmittel, wie 2. Immunsystem, tötet nur anaerobe Bakterien (die Stickstoff atmen), aerobe Darmbakterien unbeeinflusst, neutralisiert Fluorid-Vergiftung.. Verbrennungen, Candida, Meningitis, Colitis, Zystitis, Dermatitis, Diphterie, Diplococcus, Ruhr, E. coli, Gonorrhöe, Infektion, Grippe, Pneumococci, Ringwürmer, Gürtelrose, Staphylococci, Tuberkulose, Warzen, Keuchhusten“ hier
„nach Dr. O. Becker sterben alle pathogenen Mikroorganismen, die gg. Antibiotika bereits immun sind durch kolloidales Silber ab.. schwächt nicht das Immunsystem wie Antibiotika..
+ stärkt Immunsystem.. Zusammenhang zwischen niedrigen Silberanteilen und Krankheiten.. Anteil im Körper 0.001%.. bei Absinken Fehlfunktion Immunsystem
+ förderte Knochenwachstum
+ beschleunigte Heilung von verletztem Gewebe um mehr als 50%
+ tiefgreifender Heilstimulus für Haut u.a. zartes Gewebe
+ fördert neues Zellwachstum.. wie Zellen bei Kindern
+ kann Krebszellen in normale Zellen zurückverwandeln“ Merkaba-Life hier
Robert C. Beck entwickelte Behandlungsgerät zum ‚Zappen‘ von Blut.. 3,8Hz.. 27V / 50-100uA… 20min-2h.. scheint Parasiten zu inaktivieren.. vom Immunsystem beseitigt.. Behandlung begleitet durch pulsierende Magnetfelder an bestimmten Körperregionen.. Trinken kolloidales Silber.. bislang die einzige absolut zuverlässige Methode zur Auslöschung der Blutparasiten.. bei allen untersuchten Patienten nach wenigen Wochen keine/kaum Erreger nachweisbar“ hier
„AgIon-Additiv: medizin. Kunststoffe, Katheter, Ernährungssonden, Wundverbände, Vorratsbehälter, Pappkartons, Milchbehälter, Kühlschränke.. Bakterienreduktion 99.99%“
-> Wundheilung, Schmerzen
kolloidales Silber lindert Schmerzen, beschleunigt Heilung.. wissenschaftlich bewiesen.. Schmerz verursacht durch Unterbrechung 50-70mV.. Mangel an elektr. Energie erschwert Heilung.. Silbermünze auf Verbrennung lindert sofort.. silberbeschichtetes Verbandsmaterial hat schmerzstillende und regenerierende Eigenschaften“ Dr. Robert Beck: „Der verschwiegene Durchbruch in der Medizin“ mail Zesar 21.7.03
„positiv geladene Silberelektroden töten alle Arten von Bakterien.. Silberionen durch Spannung ins Gewebe.. Spannung ungefährlich klein.. Effekt bis 2.5cm ins Gewebe.. mit Silberionen imprägniertes Nylontuch.. infizierter Knochen.. Osteomyelitis.. nach 2 Wochen Bakterien verschwunden.. nach 1 Monat Bruch ausgeheilt.. dedifferenzierte primitive Zellen“ Robert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9
„3 zerquetschte Finger.. Orthopäde empfahl Amputation.. Silber -> neues Gewebe wuchs.. in 2.5 Monaten mit Haut überzogen, mit Gefühl, gut durchblutet, Gelenke voll beweglich.. unbehandelt wären Finger schwarz geworden/abgefallen -> Hand unbrauchbar“ hier
„Laborstudie der US-Armee Fort Sam Houston, Texas zeigt kürzere Heilungszeiten durch Silber-Nylon-Material.. Heilung der Haut rascher mit elektrischen Strömen“ hier
Silverlon-Verband: für raschere Wundheilung“ hier
ACTISORB Silver 220: wundreinigende Silber-Aktivkohle-Auflage.. bei aufbrechenden Karzinomen, infizierten/infektionsgefährdeten Wunden, Ulcus cruris, Dekubitus, diabetischem Fuß.. · fördert Granulation/Epithelbildung.. verhindert störende Geruchsbildung“ hier
-> Entgiftung
Silber hat die Fähigkeit Quecksilber zu neutralisieren und aus dem Körper auszuleiten“ hier
Silber neutralisiert Fluorid-Vergiftung..“ hier
-> Knocheninfektion, Krebs, Regeneration
„Patient mit chron. Knocheninfektion und Krebs in der Wunde.. verweigerte Amputation..
nach 3 Monaten Silbertechnik Infektion unter Kontrolle, Krebszellen in normale Zellen umgewandelt.. 8 Jahre nach der Behandlung noch ok.. kombinierte Wirkung der elektrischen Spannung und elektr. erzeugten Silberionen.. Ladungsaustausch sendet Signal zum Kern der Krebszelle -> aktiviert Gene -> Zelle dedifferenziert und wartet auf Anweisung, was sie werden soll..“ S.164ff Becker: ‚cross currents‘
Silber fördert Knochenwachstum.. beschleunigt Heilung von verletzten Gewebe 50%..
Zellarten ähnlich Knochenmark von Kindern.. Zellen wuchsen sehr schnell.. produzierten
verschiedenartige Zellformen, die imstande waren, sich rasch zu vervielfältigen, um sich dann
zu spezialisierten Organ- oder Gewebezellen zu entwickeln.. sogar bei 50-jährigen..
überwindet Hauptproblem der Regeneration von Säugetieren“ S.164ff Becker: ‚cross currents‘
„Knochenbrüche heilten bei positiven Strömen rascher..
elektrisch erzeugte Silberionen regten Gewebewachstum an“ hier
„die Dedifferenzierung der Fibroblast-Zellen durch elektrisch erzeugte Silberionen
könnte die Regeneration in menschlichen Patienten ermöglichen“ hier
„mit Silberionen positiv geladenes Nylontuch.. kleine Spannung.. Ionen bis 2.5cm ins Gewebe.. dedifferenzierte primitive Zellen“ Robert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9
„mit der Silberelektrodentechnik große Mengen von Zellen dedifferenzieren..
aufbewahren, bis sie gebraucht werden.. wie Stammzellen von neugeborenen Kindern..
wird die Medizin revolutionieren
Robert O. Becker, Haley: „Politics in Healing“ Kap.9
-> Wasser
„Hunza-Wasser.. hohe Konzentration von Silber.. submikroskopische Kolloidalform..
68dyn/cm -> nasser, leichter aufzunehmen.. Hunza vital mit 100″ Flanagan
„hochenergetische Partikel=Kolloide.. wirken wie Energiesamen, die Ladung tragen..
Hunza-Wasser negative el. Gesamtladung.. Gletscherstaub ultrafein.. milchig.. enthält jedes bekannte Element.. hohe Konzentration von Silber.. submikroskopische Kolloidalform.. keinerlei Mineralsalze“ S.137fff Flanagan
„alle Nahrungsmittel müssen benetzt werden, ehe der Körper sie nutzen kann.. hängt mit Anzahl el. Ladungen auf Oberfläche zusammen..
wasserlösliche organische Nährstoffe nur in Wasser löslich, das eine niedrigere Oberflächenspannung hat als der Nährstoff selbst“ Flanagan
„Hunza: Vitalität noch mit über 100 Jahren.. Hunza-Wasser 68dyn/cm -> nasser, leichter aufzunehmen.. negative el. Gesamtladung.. Gletscherstaub ultrafein.. milchig.. enthält jedes bekannte Element.. hohe Konzentration von Silber.. submikroskopische Kolloidalform.. keinerlei Mineralsalze.. bestimmte kristalline Mineralien verringern die Oberflächenspannung des Wassers durch Kontakt“ Flanagan
Doppelspiralrohr: Leitschienen aus Edelmetall (Kupfer, Silber) an Innenseite steuern
Wasser in Spiralbewegung.. Qualität erhöhen.. Widerstand vermindern.. pathogene Keime im Wasser vernichtet“ S.89f Alexandersson
„selbstgebauter Repulsator: 2m hohes Gefäß aus Holz/ungebranntem Ton/Glas, am besten Eiform.. keine Nägel/Eisenbänder, Kupfer ok.. an schattigem Platz eingegraben.. gutes Wasser eingefüllt.. paar Hände voll Holzspäne bzw. Knochen/Federmehl/Hühner-/Kuhmist.. paar Kupfer- und Zinkstücke, hartgehämmert auf Eichenholz.. mit Holzlöffel (Kupfer- od. Silberblechbeschlagen, keine Eisennägel) nach links rühren, von außen nach innen -> Wirbel.. nach rechts rühren.. dichter Holzdeckel drauf (keine Eisennägel).. kleines Loch mit Leinenstoff bedeckt.. soll 2-3 Wochen stehen.. gibt horizontale Energie an den Boden ab.. Wasser zum Düngen verwenden.. Eiform -> strömt von selbst zykloid“ S.184 Alexandersson
-> Schirmung gg. Elektrosmog
Simtex: hochfeines mit reinem Silber versehenes Textil.. reflektiert/dämpft HF-Strahlung 99,99%.. Prof. Peter Pauli Universität der Bundeswehr München.. Schlafender durch Matratzenunterlage nahezu vollständig von Strahlung abgeschirmt.. verkürzte Einschlafphasen/längere erholsame Tiefschlafphasen.. Prof. Richard Wagner, Universität Osnabrück“ Sossenheimer Wochenblatt 18.7.02 hier
Tex-A-Med: Kleidung als Therapie.. Stoff mit Silberfäden.. bayerische Entwicklung“ S.6 tz 5.2.04


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Was ist kolloidales Silber?

Der Begriff „Kolloid“ bezeichnet die Mischung zweier Substanzen verschiedener Aggregatzustände, fest (Silberatome) und flüssig (destilliertes Wasser). Dabei liegt bei einer Dichte von 15 ppm das Silber in extrem kleinen Partikeln von ca. 25 – 35 Atomen (Cluster-Größe) vor. Kolloide sind die kleinsten Teilchen, in die Materie unter normalen Bedingungen zerlegt werden kann, ohne dass die individuellen Eigenschaften dabei verloren gehen. Die nächste Stufe der Zerkleinerung wäre das einzelne Atom selbst. Diese Silber Partikel befinden sich in reinem destillierten Wasser und tragen eine elektrische Ladung. Da sich gleiche Ladungen gegenseitig abstoßen, halten sich die Teilchen so in Schwebe. Sie sind im Wasser optimal verteilt und setzen sich nicht am Boden der Flasche ab.

Diese wichtige elektrische Ladung geht allerdings wie bei einer Batterie mit der Zeit – vor allem durch Lichteinfluss und störende elektromagnetische Strahlungen verloren. Deshalb sollte kolloidales Silber immer lichtgeschützt und fern von elektrischen Geräten aufbewahrt werden. Am wirkungsvollsten ist kolloidales Silber in einem Zeitraum von drei bis vier Monaten nach der Produktion. Produkte die älter als 3 bis 4 Monate sind, verlieren dann schnell ihre hohe Wirksamkeit.


Kolloidales Silber hatte bereits vor hundert Jahren eine große medizinische Bedeutung, geriet aber mit der Einführung von Antibiotika zunehmend in Vergessenheit.
Heute erfährt kolloidales Silber eine große Renaissance.

Kolloidales Silber ist ein äußerst wirkungsvolles Antibiotikum mit folgenden Vorteilen:
– Kolloidales Silber wirkt gegen 650 verschiedene Erreger. Antibiotika dagegen nur gegen vielleicht ein Dutzend Bakterien.
Gegen Viren wirkt Antibiotika überhaupt nicht!

Tatsächlich wird jeder bisher getestete Erreger innerhalb von 3 – 4 Minuten abgetötet, bei einer Konzentration von nur
5mg Silber / Liter Wasser. Resistente Erreger wurden bisher nicht entdeckt.
– Kolloidales Silber wirkt auch bei Erregern die gegen Antibiotika resistent sind!
– Kolloidales Silber erzeugt selber keine Resistenzen.
– Kolloidales Silber ist frei von Nebenwirkungen.


Nach medizinischen Fachzeitschriften aus der ganzen Welt, ist kolloidales Silber ein wirkungsvolles Breitband-Antibiotikum und tötet alle einzelligen Parasiten, also Bakterien, Viren und Pilze, in kürzester Zeit ab.
Einzellige Parasiten benötigen für ihren Stoffwechsel ein bestimmtes Enzym, das durch kolloidales Silber blockiert wird. Der Stoffwechsel der Parasiten kommt zum Erliegen und sie sterben in einer Zeit von höchstens 6 Minuten nach Kontakt mit dem Silber ab. Gesunde Hautzellen und gesundheitsfördernde Bakterien sollen bei der Behandlung mit kolloidalem Silber nicht geschädigt werden, unterstützend können jedoch während und nach einer oralen Silberkur die Darmflora aufbauende Mittel eingenommen werden. Ein weiterer Vorteil von kolloidalem Silber ist, dass die Krankheitserreger nicht resistent werden.

Kommentare aus amerikanischen Fachzeitschriften

Health Consciousness (Vol. 15 No. 4):

„Es steht nicht in Konflikt mit irgendeiner anderen Medikation und führt auch nicht zu Magenbeschwerden. Tatsächlich ist es eine Verdauungshilfe. Es brennt nicht in den Augen. Medizinjournal – Berichte und dokumentierte Studien der letzten 100 Jahre sprechen von keinen Nebenwirkungen durch oral oder intravenös verabreichtem Silberkolloid, weder bei Tieren noch bei Menschen. Es wurde mit hervorragenden Ergebnissen bei hochakuten Gesundheitsproblemen eingesetzt. Ohne übertreiben zu wollen: Es ist an der Zeit, kolloidales Silber nicht nur als sicherste, sondern auch als wirksamste Medizin der Welt anzuerkennen“.

Perceptions Magazine (Mai/Juni 1996):

Renaissance der Kolloidforschung: „Um die Jahrhundertwende (1900!) gelang Wissenschaftlern ein bedeutender Durchbruch in der Medizin: Die wichtigsten Körperflüssigkeiten (Blut, Lymphflüssigkeit) sind
Kolloide. Dies eröffnete unbegrenzte Möglichkeiten. Doch mit synthetisierten Antibiotika war mehr Geld zu verdienen. Die heutige Krise im Gesundheitswesen und die immer weiter abnehmende Wirksamkeit von Antibiotika lenkt den Blick zurück auf die Kolloide – insbesondere auf die extrem vielseitigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von kolloidalem Silber. Antibiotikaresistente Erreger lösen in den Vereinigten Staaten ganze Epidemien aus. So absurd es klingt – die dritthäufigste Krankheits- und Todesursache in den Vereinigten Staaten ist heute wieder die Infektionskrankheit.“

Exotic Research Report (Vol. 1/1) auf englisch:

Dr. Robert C. Becker?
Nach Dr. 0. Becker bekannter Biomedizinforscher, sterben alle pathogenen Mikroorganismen, die gegen Antibiotika bereits immun sind, durch Verabreichung von kolloidalem Silber ab.
Der Pharmakologe Barnes erklärt: „Viele Arten von Mikroben, Viren und Pilzen werden durch den Kontakt mit kolloidalem Silber abgetötet und können nicht mehr mutieren. Doch schädigt es nicht Hautzellen-Enzyme oder freundliche Bakterien. Anders als Antibiotika, schwächt kolloidales Silber nicht das Immunsystem. Tatsächlich führt es zu einer außerordentlichen Kräftigung des Immunsystems.
Dr. Becker erkannte einen Zusammenhang zwischen niedrigen Silberanteilen und Krankheiten. Der durchschnittliche Anteil im Körper beträgt 0,001%. Er behauptet, ein Absinken dieses Wertes sei verantwortlich für die Fehlfunktionen des Immunsystems. Es scheint als ob etwas im Silber eng mit dem grundlegenden Lebensprozeß verbunden ist. Dr. Becker berichtet über Erfahrungen mit älteren Patienten: „Silber hat mehr bewirkt, als nur Krankheitserreger abzutöten. Es förderte in besonderer Weise das Knochenwachstum und beschleunigte die Heilung von verletztem Gewebe um mehr als 50%-. Er fand heraus., daß „Silber einen tiefgreifenden Heilstimulus für Haut und anderes zartes Gewebe bewirkt, anders als bei jedem natürlichen Vorgang…“ und daß es eine neue Art des Zellwachstums fördert, die aussieht wie die Zellen von Kindern! Diese Zellen wachsen schnell und produzieren dabei eine erstaunliche Sammlung primitiver Zellformen, die in der Lage sind, sich mit hoher Geschwindigkeit zu multiplizieren und sich dann in die spezifischen Zellen eines Organs oder eines verletzten Gewebes zu differenzieren, selbst bei Patienten über 50 Jahren. Dr. Becker entdeckte sogar, daß kolloidales Silber Krebszellen in normale Zellen zurückverwandeln kann.


Anwendung des kolloidalen Silbers

Kolloidales Silber ist innerlich und äußerlich anzuwenden.

Die äußere Anwendung eignet sich für Akne, Warzen, offene Wunden, Herpes, Schuppenflechte, Fußpilz und ähnlichen Hauterkrankungen. Dabei können die betroffenen Stellen mit einem in kolloidalem Silber getränkten Wattebausch eingerieben werden. Bei Warzen, Schnitt- und Schürfwunden empfiehlt sich auch das Anlegen eines Verbandes.

Für eine innere Anwendung, etwa bei Darmbeschwerden, Grippe, Candidabefall, chronischer Müdigkeit oder auch zur Ausleitung von Quecksilber durch Amalgam-Zahnfüllungen, wird kolloidales Silber in Wasser verschüttelt und dieses Wasser über den Tag verteilt getrunken.

Bei Schnupfen, Mandelentzündung, Bindehautentzündung einfach mit einer Lösung gurgeln, spülen oder als Tropfen verwenden. Weitere Anwendungsmöglichkeiten sind vaginale und rektale Spülungen, aber auch Nasen- und Inhalationssprays.

Übrigens ist kolloidales Silber ein hervorragendes Pflanzenschutzmittel oder zur Behandlung von Tieren geeignet.

Bei diesen Krankheiten ist die Anwendung von kolloidalem Silber erfolgreich. Dabei ist jeweils der erlaubte therapeutische Rahmen zu beachten (und die ärztliche Sorgfaltspflicht!)

Virale und bakterielle Erkrankungen

Grippe, grippale Infekte
Durchfall, Gastritis, Ruhr
Chronische Müdigkeit
Tuberkulose, Keuchhusten
Alle Arten von Entzündungen im Körper
Offene Wunden
Blutvergiftung (Lymphangitis)
Malaria, Rheuma, Arthritis
Akne, Warzen
Herpes (simples und zoster)
Fußpilz, Schuppenflechte
Furunkel, Dermatitis

Weitere Anwendungen finden Sie in dem Buch über kolloidales Silber:

Das kolloidale Silber ist ein „Experimentierwasser“ und kein Arzneimittel im Sinne des AMG. Bei gesundheitlichen Problemen wenden Sie sich bitte an Ihren Arzt oder Heilpraktiker. Es kann zu Entgiftungserscheinungen und zur Anregung des Stoffwechsels kommen.
Von der trinkfertigen Lösung, die Sie selber herstellen, können Sie bis zu 3 Gläser täglich zu sich nehmen.

Was kann es nicht? Grenzen und Nebenwirkungen
Jede Therapie, die mentale und psychische Aspekte in ihrer Behandlung nicht berücksichtigt, kann auf Dauer nur Teilerfolge erzielen. Insofern ist auch kolloidales Silber kein Allheilmittel, das die bewusste Auseinandersetzung mit der Krankheit und den eigenen Lebensumständen überflüssig macht.

Kritische Stimmen meinen, bei einer Langzeitanwendung von höher dosierten Silberpräparaten könnte es zu Ablagerungen in Haut, Augen und inneren Organen kommen, allerdings ist dazu insgesamt eine Menge von 3,8g elementarem Silber nötig. Bei der Einnahme von kolloidalem Silber liegt für Erwachsene die empfohlene Tagesdosis bei höchstens 5 mg (Mikrogramm, ein Millionstel) pro Kilogramm Körpergewicht. Es ist also in jedem Fall empfehlenswert, sich an die Dosierungsvorgaben zu halten. Und da kolloidales Silber schon in geringsten Mengen wirkt, gilt für die Dosierung ohnehin „weniger ist mehr“.

Einige Mitarbeiter der amerikanischen Gesundheitsbehörden verweisen auf die Gefahr der Argyrie (schieferfarbene Hautverfärbung) – dies gilt allerdings nicht für kolloidales Silber. Argyrie hat sich bisher nur bei Personen gezeigt, die über Jahrzehnte Silberproteine (also kein reines Silber) zu sich genommen haben. Eine durch kolloidales Silber hervorgerufene Argyrie ist nicht bekannt

Bisher sind Nebenwirkungen nicht bekannt. Als Erst-Reaktion können sich die Beschwerden kurzfristig verschlechtern, aber auch Begleiterscheinungen wie etwa Müdigkeit oder Schüttelfrost klingen nach zwei bis drei Tagen wieder ab. In seltenen Fällen reagieren Patienten anfänglich auch mit Stimmungsschwankungen oder mit leichter Übelkeit.


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